Production Yield Examples
The following examples apply to the Production Yield article. The examples illustrate that you get the same results from your nutrition or cost analysis if you consider the individual yields in any order.
The examples refer to Yield and Loss. Yield refers to the ratio of output to input, usually expressed as percentage, or to the total weight of the output. Loss refers to the difference between input and output, usually expressed as weight.
Sample Recipe
Consider a simple recipe with only a single ingredient. Here are the nutrition values for a 100g sample of our test ingredient:
Test Ingredient - 100g Nutrition | |
Carbohydrate | 50g |
Water | 50g |
Our sample recipe has a 10g loss due to spillage before cooking, 20g water loss during cooking, and 28g loss due to breakage after cooking. This results in a total yield of 42g.
Sample Recipe Losses | ||
Production Loss before cooking | 10g | All nutrients are lost proportionally |
Processing Loss - Water loss due to cooking | 20g | Water loss only |
Production Loss after cooking | 28g | All nutrients are lost proportionally |
Example 1 - Production Yield Before Cooking, Processing Yield, Production Yield After Cooking
- We start with 100g of ingredients, composed of 50g carbohydrate and 50g water.
- Production loss before cooking is 10g. Since this is production loss, it affects all nutrients proportionally. This means we lose 5g carbohydrate and 5g water. This leaves 45g carbohydrate and 45g water, for 90g initial yield. Production Yield Percentage Before Cooking is 90%.
- Water loss due to cooking is 20g. This leaves 45g carbohydrate and 25g water, for 70g intermediate yield. Processing Yield Percentage is 70g/90g, or 77.8%.
- Production loss after cooking is 28g. Since this is production loss, it affects all nutrients proportionally. The proportion of carbohydrate to water is 9:5, so we lose 18g carbohydrate and 10g water. This leaves 27g carbohydrate and 15g water, for 42g final yield. Production Yield Percentage After Cooking is 42g/70g, or 60%.
The following table summarizes:
Step | Total Loss | Carb Loss | Water Loss | Carb Left | Water Left | Yield |
1 | 50g | 50g | 100g | |||
2 | 10g | 5g | 5g | 45g | 45g | 90g |
3 | 20g | 20g | 45g | 25g | 70g | |
4 | 28g | 18g | 10g | 27g | 15g | 42g |
Example 2 - Production Yield Before Cooking, Production Yield After Cooking, Processing Yield
- We start with 100g of ingredients, composed of 50g carbohydrate and 50g water.
- Production Yield Percentage Before Cooking is 90% of 100g. Yield is 90g, so weight loss is 10g. Since this is production loss, it affects all nutrients proportionally. This means we lose 5g carbohydrate and 5g water. This leaves 45g carbohydrate and 45g water, for 90g initial yield.
- Production Yield Percentage After Cooking is 60% of 90g. Yield is 54g, so weight loss is 36g. Since this is production loss, it affects all nutrients proportionally. The proportion of carbohydrate to water is still 1:1, so we lose 18g carbohydrate and 18g water. This leaves 27g carbohydrate and 27g water, for 54g intermediate yield.
- Processing Yield Percentage (water loss due to cooking) is 77.8% of 54g. Yield is 42g, so weight loss is 12g, which is all water loss. This leaves 27g carbohydrate and 15g water, for 42g final yield.
The following table summarizes:
Step | Pct. Loss | Carb Loss | Water Loss | Carb Left | Water Left | Yield |
1 | 50g | 50g | 100g | |||
2 | 10% - 10g | 5g | 5g | 45g | 45g | 90g |
3 | 40% - 36g | 18g | 18g | 27g | 27g | 54g |
4 | 22.2% - 12g | 12g | 27g | 15g | 42g |
Example 3 - Processing Yield, Production Yield Before Cooking, Production Yield After Cooking
- We start with 100g of ingredients, composed of 50g carbohydrate and 50g water.
- Processing Yield Percentage (water loss due to cooking) is 77.8% of 100g. Yield is 77.8g, so weight loss is 22.2g, which is all water loss. This leaves 50g carbohydrate and 27.8g water, for 77.8g initial yield.
- Production Yield Percentage Before Cooking is 90% of 77.8g. Yield is 70g, so weight loss is 7.8g. Since this is production loss, it affects all nutrients proportionally. The proportion of carbohydrate to water is 9:5, This means we lose 5g carbohydrate and 2.8g water. This leaves 45g carbohydrate and 25g water, for 70g intermediate yield.
- Production Yield Percentage After Cooking is 60% of 70g. Yield is 42g, so weight loss is 28g. Since this is production loss, it affects all nutrients proportionally. The proportion of carbohydrate to water is still 9:5, so we lose 18g carbohydrate and 10g water. This leaves 27g carbohydrate and 15g water, for 42g final yield.
The following table summarizes:
Step | Pct. Loss | Carb Loss | Water Loss | Carb Left | Water Left | Yield |
1 | 50g | 50g | 100g | |||
2 | 22.2% - 22.2g | 22.2g | 50g | 27.8g | 77.8g | |
3 | 10% - 7.8g | 5g | 2.88g | 45g | 25g | 70g |
4 | 40% - 28g | 18g | 10g | 27g | 15g | 42g |
Example 4 - Why this works
You can consider the yields in any order because you can multiply a set of numbers in any order. Here's the algebra.
Y_{1} = Production Yield Percentage Before Cooking
Y_{2} = Production Yield Percentage After Cooking
Y_{w} = Processing Yield Percentage (water loss)
C = Carbohydrate
W = Water
From Example 1 above:
- Total Ingredient Weight = C + W
- Initial Yield = Total Ingredient Weight * Y_{1} = (C + W) * Y_{1} = C * Y_{1} + W * Y_{1}
- Intermediate Yield (water loss applies only to water) = C * Y_{1} + W * Y_{1} * Y_{w}
- Final Yield = Intermediate Yield * Y_{2} = C * Y_{1} * Y_{2} + W * Y_{1} * Y_{w} * Y_{2}
From Example 2 above:
- Total Ingredient Weight = C + W
- Initial Yield = Total Ingredient Weight * Y_{1} = (C + W) * Y_{1} = C * Y_{1} + W * Y_{1}
- Intermediate Yield = Initial Yield * Y_{2} = C * Y_{1} * Y_{2} + W * Y_{1} * Y_{2}
- Final Yield (water loss applies only to water) = C * Y_{1} * Y_{2} + W * Y_{1} * Y_{2} * Y_{w}